あ:tax

06/21/2018

About heavy burden on farmers in the 8th century

Farmers cultivated not only rice-fields which were allocated by the government but also rice-fields owned by the government, temples or nobles.
 
Basically, farmers were lent these rice-fields for 1 year and paid 20% of the crops to the owners as the rental-fee.
 
In addition, farmers had to serve in the army and be engaged in government assigned work for about 60 days a year without pay.
 
Moreover, adult males also had to submit special products of the district such as silk, fabrics or thread to the Court and they had to deliver these products to the capital themselves.
 
In addition, they were often suffering due to famine because of bad weather or insect plagues.
 
Therefore, farmers' lives were very severe, though local governments created policies to encourage agriculture.

11/03/2017

About taxes in the 8th century

The government had various ways of taxing people in the 8th century.
 
First, the Imperial court gave rice-fields to people who were over 6 years and they had to pay about 3 percent of their crops to the Court.
 
The crops were stored at each region. This tax was called So.
 
Second, adult males also had to submit special products of the district such as silk or fabrics or thread to the Court and they had to deliver these products to the capital themselves. The tax was called Cho.
 
Third, adult males had to work on construction sites or attend to other physical labor by order of the Kokushi who governed the region. They had to be engaged in the work for about 60 days a year without payment. This was called Zoyo.
 
In addition, the Court also lent young rice plants to people too. The plants' cost and the interests had to be paid by crops in autumn. This was called Suiko.
 
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