あ:community

06/28/2018

About Rich farmers and poor farmers in the 8th century

In the 8th century, the disparity between rich farmers and poor farmers became significant. 
 
Some of poor farmers relinquished rice fields allocated by the government and left the places where they were registered.
 
Some others of them escaped from construction sites in Kyoto during their duties. After that some of them became wanderers or servants of local lords.
 
On the other hand, some of rich farmers moved to other places to expand their farming without the government permission.
 
Some others of them became monks or servants of nobles without permission, because they tried to avoid heavy tax burden on farmers.
 
At the end of the 8th century, many farmers defaulted in paying their taxes which they had to pay in special products of their districts such as silk, cloth.
 
The government's forces which consisted of many farmers got weakened.
 
These seriously influenced on the finance and the military power of the government.

08/18/2017

social positions in the Yayoi period

In the Jomon period※1, people ate meat and fish and people seemed generally equal.

In the Yayoi period※2, however, the difference between people appeared when people started planting rice which could be preserved. Some people had good farming skills and could store a lot of crops but other people couldn't.

In addition, when people planted rice, they had to work cooperatively, so they needed a leader of their group. This caused differences in social positions between them.

Furthermore, shamans became powerful because they were believed to be able to predict good or bad harvest of the crop.

Little by little, small villages were formed. These were combined and then became provinces. Some provinces became big and powerful.  Leaders of these big provinces were called Kings.

※1 the Jomon period ranged from around 12,000 B.C. to around 400 B.C.

※2 the Yayoi period ranged from around 400 B.C. to around 300 A.D.

08/16/2017

food and community in the Yayoi period

In the Jomon period※1, people ate meat and fish and people seemed generally equal.

However, the difference between people appeared in the Yayoi period※2. When people started planting rice which could be preserved. Some people had good farming skills and could store a lot of crops but other people couldn't.

In addition, when people planted rice, they had to work cooperatively, so they needed a leader of their group. This caused differences in social positions between them.

Furthermore, shamans became powerful because they were believed to be able to predict good or bad harvest of the crop.

Little by little, small villages were formed. These were combined and then became provinces. Some provinces became big and powerful.  Leaders of these big provinces were called Kings.

Yayoi_earthenware1

Yayoi earthenware

 

※1 the Jomon period ranged from around 12,000 B.C. to around 400 B.C.

※2 the Yayoi period ranged from around 400 B.C. to around 300 A.D.

This photo was taken in the Nerima Furusato museum.

08/10/2017

houses and communities in the Jomon period

As people in the Jomon period※ became able to get food in various ways, their lives became stable and then they built houses and started to settle down on sunny hills near watersides.  Their houses were pit-dwelling style. They dug the ground and put a roof over it and there was a fire place at the center of the house. It is considered that a family lived in a house and cooked and had meals together. 

Syuraku Tateana

At many ruins of the Jomon period, you can see remains of several houses arranged in a circle around an open space. They also built warehouses and graves. Therefore, it is considered that they created a small village with about 5 families as the basic unit of the communities in the Jomon period. It is thought that the gap between rich people and poor people was very little in those days, because their houses and graves were almost the same size.

 

 

※1 the Jomon period ranged from around 12,000 B.C. to around 400 B.C.

◎These photos were taken at The Nishitokyo-city hometown museum.

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